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Course Code: 
DENT 461
Course Period: 
Course Type: 
Course Language: 
Course Objectives: 
This is a two-semester course intended to provide the student competency in, orthodontic treatment needs, diagnosis and the treatment approaches.
Course Content: 

In this course,  biomechanics and histology of tooth movement including orthodontic tooth movement, biomechanics in orthodontics, anchorage, the materials used in orthodontics,  orthodontic treatment approaches intra-oral and extra-oral appliances, rapid and  slow expansion of upper jaw, functional orthodontic treatment, fixed orthodontic treatment, complications in orthodontic treatment, orthognathic surgery, retaining protocols after orthodontic treatment, interdisciplinary treatment  planning and problem/cased based learning in orthodontics will be discussed.

Course Methodology: 
1: Lecture, 2: Question-Answer, 3: Discussion, 4: Presentation, 5:Simulation, 6: Video, 7: Applications, 8:Case Study
Course Evaluation Methods: 
A:Written exam, B: Multiple choice , C:Filing the blank D:False and true, E: Oral Exam F: Portfolio, G: Contribution of course activities H:Homework

Vertical Tabs

Course Learning Outcomes


Learning Outcomes  Program learning outcomes Teaching Methods  Assessment Methods 
1) Being able to describe the processes in orthodontic tooth movement and the histology of the tooth movement in orthodontics. 1-3, 6-12, 15 1,2,3,8 A,B,C
2) Being able to describe biomechanics in orthodontics and the anchorage. 1-3, 6-12, 15 1,2,3,8 A,B,C
3) Being able to describe the materials used in orthodontics. 1-3, 6-12, 15 1,2,3,8 A,B,C
4) Being able to describe orthodontic treatment needs and the extra-oral appliances in orthodontics and the protocols in expansion of the upper jaw. 1-3, 6-12, 15 1,2,3,8 A,B,C
5) Being able to describe functional treatment an the fixed orthodontic treatment . 1-3, 6-12, 15 1,2,3,8 A,B,C
6) Being able to evaluate the dental patient in consideration for their orthognathic surgery needs. 1-3, 6-12, 15 1,2,3,8 A,B,C
7) Being able to evaluate the patient in consideration for their needs and make interdisciplinary treatment plan. 1-3, 6-12, 15 1,2,3,8 A,B,C
8)Being able to describe the retaining protocols after orthodontic treatment. 1-3, 6-12, 15 1,2,3,8 A,B,C
9)Being able to understand the orthodontic treatment needs and make a treatment plan for a mixed dentition cases. 1-3, 6-12, 15 1,2,3,8 A,B,C

Course Flow


Week Topics Study Materials
A Biomechanics and The Histology of The Tooth Movement  
1 The mechanism of the orthodontic tooth movement
  1. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  2. Extracellular matrix
  3. Bone formation and the resorption
Preliminary reviewing of recommended sources
2 Biomechanics
  1.  Definition of force, moment, center of resistance
  2. Force and moments  in different types of the tooth movement 
  3. Center of rotation and the force application points
  4. The features of the orthodontic forces
Preliminary reviewing of recommended sources
3 Anchorage
  1. Definition 
  2. Anchorage appliances and their uses in orthodontics
Preliminary reviewing of recommended sources
4 Materials used in Orthodontics Preliminary reviewing of recommended sources
B Orthodontic Treatment Approaches sources
5 Extra-oral Appliances
  1. Headgears

  1- Cervical





  6- J-Hooks

  7-Chin cap

     B)  Face Mask


Preliminary reviewing of recommended sources
6 A) Expansion

1- Slow expansion types and the appliances

2- Rapid expansion types and the appliances

3- Indications of corticotomy supported expansion


Preliminary reviewing of recommended sources
7 Functional Treatments in Orthodontics
  1. Phylosophy of the functional orthodontic treatments
  2. Functional treatment for Class II and Class III cases
  3. Appliances used in functional orthodontic treatment


Preliminary reviewing of recommended sources
8 Fixed Orthodontic Treatment
  1. Edgewise, Tip Edge, Begg, Straight wire techniques and the rules
  2. Fixed types of Molar distalisation applieances in class II cases
  3. Advantages and the disadvantages of the different types of fixed orthodontic treatments.
Preliminary reviewing of recommended sources
9 Complications in Orthodontic Treatments
  1. Periodontal problems
  2. Enamel surface problems
  3. Problems related to pulps
  4. Root resorptions
  5. TMJ problems
  6. Problems caused by appliances and the treatment styles
Preliminary reviewing of recommended sources
10 Orthognathic Surgery
  1. Indications
  2. Preperations for orthognathic surgery
  3. Cases and treatment methods
Preliminary reviewing of recommended sources



Recommended Sources


  1. Prof.Dr.Mustafa Ülgen; Ortodontik Tedavi Prensipleri İstanbul Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Yayın Yeri: İstanbul Yayın Yılı: 1993.
  2. McNamara JA, Brudon WL. Orthodontic and Orthopedic Treatment in the mixed dentition. Needham Press, Michigan, 1993
  3. Prof.Dr.Filiz Perkün; Çene ortopedisi (IV cilt) Beta Basım Yayım
  4. Erken Ortodontik Tedavi; Çeviri Editörü:Tülin Taner, Quintessence Yayınları 2008
  5. Contemporary Orthodontics. Proffit,William and Fields,Henry, The Mosby Co, 3rd edition.
  6. Laura Mitchell, An Introduction to Orthodontics (Oxford Medical Publications) (Paperback) Oxford University Press, USA; 2 edition, june 7, 2001.
  7. Ortodontik Tedavi: Kavramlar ve Stratejiler Frans P.G.M. van der Linden, Çeviri Editörü: Prof. Dr. Tülin Arun.
Additional Resources
  1. Hand-outs
  2. Clinical manuals
  3. AAPD and IAPD guidelines

Material Sharing


Documents Contemporary literature.
Assignments Shareable.
Exams Not shareable.



Midterm  Exam 2 50%
Quiz - -
Final Exam 1 50%
Total   100%
Total   100

Course’s Contribution to Program


No Program Learning Outcomes Contribution
1 2 3 4 5  
1 Adopting a lifelong learning concept, making necessary planning and practice for continuous professional development.         X  
2 Planning and managing teamwork in the practice, taking into consideration patient safety and clinical risk management.         X  
3 Applying ethical principles in all patients and using ethical decision making principles in solving ethical issues.         X  
6 Using the necessary anamnesis, examination and auxiliary diagnostic methods for the diagnosis of oral and dental diseases and interpreting the relationship between the general health status of the patient and planning of dental treatments.         X  
7 Making a comprehensive treatment planning that includes all preventive measures by taking the protection and maintenance of health as a priority in all dental practices.         X  
8 Planning alternative treatment options and make a collaborative decision with the patient about final treatment planning by informing about the advantages and disadvantages of the plans.         X  
9 Integrating basic medical sciences in clinical sciences and using this information in all procedures of the patient.         X  
10 Making a treatment planning by taking oral health risks of the patient into consideration and referring to a specialist in cases beyond one’s area of expertise.         X  
11 Performing first step health services of the patient with maximum psychomotor skills and using the principles of evidence based dentistry.         X  
12 Establishing communication with pediatric patients considering the stages of mental development and provision of behavioral management.         X  
15 Following international literature, evaluating publications critically and integration of research results and evidence based dentistry during practice.         X  



Activities Quantity Duration
Course Duration (Including the exam week: 28x Total course hours) 28 3  
Hours for off-the-classroom study (Pre-study, practice) 2 7 14
Midterm Exams 2 1 2
Final 1 1 1
Total Work Load     101
Total Work Load / 25 (h)     4.04
ECTS Credit of the Course     4