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Course Code: 
MDD 195
Course Period: 
Course Type: 
Course Language: 
Course Objectives: 
This course is conducted with the collaboration of the departments of Biochemistry, Histology and Embryology, Physiology and Anatomy. The course aims to familiarize the student with the metabolic activities in the human body.
Course Content: 

The course encompasses topics such as nucleotides, enzymes, ATP production in the human body, Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, oxidation of fatty acids, ketogenesis, catabolism of proteins and aminoacids, fertilization, blastulation, gastrulation and somitogenesis, neurulation and folding, formation of basic organs and fetal period, extraembryonic structures, histology of cartilage and bobe tissue, human development, genome of mitochondria and tooth agenesis. Muscles of the head and neck, blood vessels of the head and neck, Blood vessels of the upper and lower limbs, Muscles and blood vessels of the abdominal region

Course Methodology: 
1: Lecture, 2: Question-Answer, 3: Discussion, 4: Practice
Course Evaluation Methods: 
A: Testing, B: lab study

Vertical Tabs

Course Learning Outcomes


Learning Outcomes 

By the end of the course, the student will;

Programme learning outcomes Teaching Methods  Assessment Methods 
Define the structures of nucleotides which occur in the respiratory chain,

Define the structures of nucleotides which function in the metabolisms of carbohydrates, lipis, proteins.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4,  A, B
Explain the mechanism of enzyme-­‐substrate complex formation,

Explain the factors affecting the enzymatic reactions,

Describe the types of inhibitors of enzymatic reactions,

Classify the regulatory enzymes,

List the enzymes according to their sequence order in the respiratory chain,

Explain the function of each enzyme in the respiratory chain,

List the enzymes involved in removal or ROS

Classify the enzymes according to the international system,

Define the reaction mechanisms of oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases,

Give one example for each enzyme class of oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases,

Define the reaction mechanisms of lyases, isomerases, ligases,

Give one example for each enzyme class of lyases, isomerases, ligases

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4,  A, B
Describe ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation,

Describe ATP production by substrate level phosphorylation

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4,  A, B
List the differences between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis,

Calculate the energy release by aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis,

Explain the cycles related to gluconeogenesis,

Explain the mechanisms of action of the enzymes which regulate gluconeogenesis

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4,  A, B
Explain glycogenesis step by step,

Explain glycogenolysis step by step,

List the main differences between liver and muscle glycogen,

Describe the regulation of glycogenolysis and glycogenesis by regulatory enzymes.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4,  A, B
Explain the interconnection of pentose phosphate pathway with nucleic acid metabolism,

Explain the interconnection between pentose phosphate pathway and reduction reactions,

Explain the relation between pentose phosphate pathway with antioxidant system of Glutathione

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Explain β-­‐oxidation of fatty acids, by indicating all the enzymes,

Calculate the energy gain by β-­‐oxidation of fatty acids,

List the differences between β-­‐oxidation of even-­‐number carbon fatty acids, odd-­‐ number carbon fatty acids and branched chain fatty acids

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
List the names of ketone bodies,

Explain the syntheses of ketone bodies,

List the conditions for the ketone bodies to be used as fuel in extrahepatic tissues.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
List the general biochemical reactions involved in the catabolism of amino acids,

Describe the properties of the enzymes involved in the catabolism of amino acids,

Classify the amino acids according to their degradation products,

Explain the urea cycle,

Explain the connection between urea cycle and citric acid cycle

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Identify the site of fertilization, and describe the general steps involved in this process. When does fertilization occur with respect to the events of the menstrual cycle?

Distinguish between fertilization age and menstrual (gestational) age.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Describe the changes that occur in the conceptus from zygote to blastocyst formation.

Bilaminar Embryo to Implantation

List the usual sites of implantation; list the more common ectopic implantation sites.

Describe the process of implantation including the differentiation of the trophoblast into cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast and the decidual reaction in the surrounding maternal tissue.

Summarize the changes that occur within the conceptus and surrounding maternal tissuesduring the week after implantation is initiated.

Describe the components of the bilaminar embryonic disc at the end of the second week ofdevelopment. List the sources of these two layers.

Describe the role of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in the maintenance of pregnancy.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Describe briefly the process of gastrulation and the origin of the three primary embryonic germ layers.

List the two areas in the embryonic disc that remain free of mesoderm.

Describe the regional differences that appear within the embryonic mesoderm during the third week of development.

Describe the source of the somites, and list the major derivatives of these structures.

 List the major derivatives of the three primary embryonic germ layers.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Describe the source and mechanism of origin of the notochord.

Outline the main features of neurulation.

Describe the sequence of events involved in the formation of the neural tube and neural crest.

List the derivatives of neural crest cells.

Describe briefly the role of the head fold, tail fold, and lateral body folds a) in converting the flat trilaminar embryonic disc into a C-­‐shaped cylindrical embryo, b) in establishing the gut, and c) in narrowing the umbilical ring.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Characterize the main features of the embryonic and fetal periods of development. PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Describe the changes that occur within the extraembryonic structures during the third week,especially the development of the chorionic villi. (The rudiments of all four extraembryonic membranes are now present.)

Define the three subdivisions of the decidua (basalis, capsularis, and parietalis) that become distinguishable after implantation is completed.

Describe the differentiation of the chorionic sac into the villous chorion and smooth chorion.

List the functions of amniotic fluid.

Describe the origin of monozygotic and dizygotic twins.

Describe all possible relationships of amnion, chorion, and placenta for monozygotic and dizygotic twins.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Distinguish between hyaline, elastic and fibrous cartilage in histological sections

Distinguish compact bone in histological sections

Recognize connective tissue proper subtypes.

Draw a labeled diagram of hyaline, elastic, fibrous cartilage and endochondral ossification.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Recognize neurons in H&E stained sections and interpret their histological features.

Describe the light microscopic appearance of nerves in the nervous system.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Recognize the main features of the embryonic and fetal periods of development PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Define anatomical properties and clinical implications for skull bones and muscles 

Describe the link between the anatomical characteristics of bones and joints of the lower and upper limbs

Describe the anatomical features of the blood vessel of the head and neck

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B

Course Flow



COURSE CONTENT (2.nd semester)  
Week  Theoretical Topics                                       Study Materials
1 Nucleotides, enzymes and ATP production in the human body Recommended resources 
2 Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, pentose phosphate pathway Recommended resources 
3 Oxidation of fatty acids, ketogenesis, catabolism of proteins and amino acids Recommended resources 
4 Fertilization, blastulation, gastrulation and somitogenesis Recommended resources 
5 Neurulation and folding Recommended resources 
6 Formation of basic organs and fatal period, extra embryonic structures Recommended resources 
7 Histology of cartilage and bone tissue, human development, genome of mitochondria and toot agenesis  Recommended resources 
Muscles of the head neck  Recommended resources 
9 Blood vessels of the head and neck Recommended resources 
10 Upper and lower limbs Recommended resources 





COURSE CONTENT (1.semester)  
Week  Practical Topics                                       Study Materials
1 Lab studies  Recommended resources 
2 Lab studies  Recommended resources 
3 Lab studies  Recommended resources 
4 Lab studies  Recommended resources 
5 Lab studies  Recommended resources 
6 Lab studies  Recommended resources 
7 Lab studies  Recommended resources 

Recommended Sources


Textbook 1.The Magnificent Biochemical Architecture of the Human Body, İ. Özden, Yeditepe University Press, 2016

2.Netter's Head and Neck Anatomy for Dentistry Neil S. Norton, ISBN: 9781929007882

3.Wheeler's Dental Anatomy, Physiology and Occlusion, Major M.Ash. Stanley Nelson, Elsevier Health Sciences

4.Head and Neck Anatomy for Dental Medicine , Baker / Schuenke / Schulte / Schumacher, Paperback / softback ISBN (Americas): 9781604062090


5.Human Physiology Stuart Ira Fox 10 th Edition Publisher:McGraw Hill

6.Textbook of Medical Physiology Guyton&Hall 12th Edition Publisher:Elsevier&saunders


Additional Resources

- Lecture notes


Material Sharing


Documents Photocopy shareable.
Assignments Sharable.
Exams Not shareable.



Midterm Exam 1 50
Quiz - -
Homework - -
Total   50
Total   100



Course’s Contribution to Program


No Program Learning Outcomes Contribution
1 2 3 4 5  
9 Integrating basic medical sciences in clinical sciences and using this information in all procedures of the patient.         X  
15 Following international literature, evaluating publications critically and integration of research results and evidence based dentistry during practice.         X  



Activity  NUMBER  Duration
(Hours )
Total workload
(Hours )
Course duration  2nd semester   ( theoretical)  7 6.9 48
Course duration  2nd semester   ( practical ) 7 4 28
Studies outside the class  ( 1st semester )  7 14 98
TOTAL      174
Total workload /25     6.96
ECTS credits of the course      7