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Course Code: 
MDD 191
Course Period: 
Course Type: 
Course Language: 
Course Objectives: 
This course is conducted with the collaboration of the departments of Biochemistry, Medical Biology, Histology and Embryology, Physiology and Anatomy. The course aims to familiarize the student with the cell system, the major constituting component of the human body.
Course Content: 

The Course content comprises a general explanation of cellular structure, cell signaling events, cell cycle and programmed cell death, the safety rules of a medical biology laboratory, laboratory equipment and devices as well as their practical use, the cellular mechanism of the cell division, the basic building block of life, and transfer of genetic information from generation with using basic microscopic technique, the different methods of DNA isolation, the first step in genetic studies, as well as the measurement of the amount and quality of obtained DNA, the Mechanical, electrical, optical events and their importance in the human body, the basis of organic reactions occurring in the human body, the types of microscopes and their area of use, the different histological methods used in laboratories,  Monosaccharide derivatives, Oligosaccharides, Polysaccharides, Glycosaminoglycans, Saturated and Unsaturated fatty acids, Triacylglycerols, Glycerophospholipids, Sphingophospholipids, Bile acids, Eicosanoids, Glutathione, Antioxidant effect, Proteins, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary Structures,.

Course Methodology: 
1: Lecture, 2: Question-Answer, 3: Discussion, 4: Practice
Course Evaluation Methods: 
A: Testing, B: lab study

Vertical Tabs

Course Learning Outcomes


Learning Outcomes  Programme learning outcomes Teaching Methods  Assessment Methods 
Explain the main building blocks of DNA and RNA

 Define the function and roles of DNA and RNA in maintenance of generations

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4,  A, B
Describe the mechanisms of regulation of gene expression. PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4,  A, B
Define genetic terms PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4,  A, B
Describe multifactorial inheritance

Describe monogenic inheritance

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4,  A, B
Examine the phases of mitosis and meiosis division and defines the principles of genetics


PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4,  A, B
Apply different methods of DNA isolation

Define the diagnosis of chromosomal diseases such as Down Syndrome,Knifelter Syndrome

and Turner Syndrome.

1, 2, 3, 4, A, B A, B
Draw a detailed diagram of the cell membrane.

Explain how hydrophobic interactions determine membrane structure and function.

 Describe how proteins are spatially arranged in the cell membrane and how they contribute to membrane function.

Describe factors that affect selective permeability of membranes.

Define diffusion; explain what causes it and why it is a spontaneous process.

Explain what regulates the rate of passive transport.

Describe one model for facilitated diffusion.

Explain how active transport differs from diffusion.

Summarize the structure of seven cytoplasmic organelles and relate it to their functions.

Recognize, secretory cells in H&E--‐staind sections and electron micrographs.

Outline the steps involved in protein secretion.

Describe the different types of lysmomes and comment on their importance.

Name two energy--‐providing storage products by cells.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
List the cytoskeleton element.

Describe probable functions of the cytoskeleton.

Describe the structure, monomers and functions of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments.

Summarize the similarities and differences between centrioles and cilia.

Distinguish the specification between the microvillus and stereocilia. Cell Nucleus and Cell Division

Describe a cell nucleus and nucleolus and state their functions.

Explain and define structure of nucleic acid, nucleotid, nucleosome, chromatin fibril, and chromatin fiber and their function.

Explain what is mean by a cell cycle.

Describe four stages of mitosis.

Define diploid, haploid, polyploid, and aneuploid.

Describe each stages of meiosis

Compare and contrast stages between mitosis and meiosis


PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Describe the general steps involved in the development of spermatozoa (spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis).

Describe the general steps involved in the development of mature ova (oogenesis).

Describe the general steps involved in the development of the ovarian follicle and its transformation into a corpus luteum.

 Compare and contrast spermatogenesis and oogenesis with regard to a) cytoplasmic changes, b) chromosomal changes (meiotic events), c) the time course of the two processes, and d) the number of mature gametes produced by each primary spermatocyte and primary oocyte.

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Define organ systems of the body and homeostasis

Explain concept of negative and positive feedback mechanisms

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Define cell membrane structures

Explain membrane transport mechanisms

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Define intra and extracellular fluid compartments

Explain distribution and functions of electrolytes such as Na+,K+ and Ca+ in body fluids

Define edema

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Define the term osmosis and explain the conditions reguired for osmosis to occur

 Explain dynamics of osmotic pressure

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B
Define mechanisms of transport from the cell membrane  PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B


Explain the structures of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides

Define monosaccharide derivatives  

Explain the structure of starch and glycogen

List the components of glycosaminoglycans

Explain the functions of glycosaminoglycans

Define the structure of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

Define the structure of triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids 

Explain the function of bile acids

Explain the function of eicosanoids

Define structure of glutathione

Explain antioxidant system of human body

Explain the protein structure: Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures

PLO 9,15 1, 2, 3, 4, A, B

Course Flow



COURSE CONTENT (1.semester)  
Week  Theoretical Topics                                       Study Materials
1 Genomics , proteomics and metabolomics  Recommended resources 
2 Carbohydrates Recommended resources 
3 Lipids Recommended resources 
4 Proteins Recommended resources 
5 Cell membrane and organelles Recommended resources 
6 Cytoskeleton and gametogenesis  Recommended resources 
7 Introduction to physiology and homeostasis Recommended resources 
8 Distribution of substances in body fluids , permeability of the cell membrane and transport of substances through the cell membrane Recommended resources 
9 Introduction to anatomy and terminology; bones, joint and general considerations; skull and individual cranial bones Recommended resources 





COURSE CONTENT (1.semester)  
Week  Practical Topics                                       Study Materials
1 Lab studies  Recommended resources 
2 Lab studies  Recommended resources 
3 Lab studies  Recommended resources 
4 Lab studies  Recommended resources 
5 Lab studies  Recommended resources 
6 Lab studies  Recommended resources 

Recommended Sources


Textbook 1.Introductory Biophysics:Perspectives on the Living State

J.R. Claycomb and Jonathan Quoc P.Tran,,USA,2010

2.Biologial Physics Philip C.Nelson,New York ,2004

3.Human Physiology Stuart Ira Fox 10 th Edition Publisher:McGraw Hill

4.Textbook of Medical Physiology Guyton&Hall 12th Edition Publisher:Elsevier&saunders

5. Özden,İ., The Magnificent Biochemical Architecture of the Human Body, Yeditepe University Press, 2019

6.Netter's Head and Neck Anatomy for Dentistry Neil S. Norton ISBN: 9781929007882

7.Wheeler's Dental Anatomy, Physiology and Occlusion Major M.Ash. Stanley Nelson

Elsevier Health Sciences

8.Head and Neck Anatomy for Dental Medicine Baker / Schuenke / Schulte / Schumacher

Paperback / softback ISBN (Americas): 9781604062090

9.3D Head and Neck Anatomy for Dentistry


Additional Resources

- Lecture notes


Material Sharing


Documents Photocopy shareable.
Assignments Shareable.
Exams Not shareable.



Midterm Exam 1 50
Quiz - -
Homework - -
Total   50
Total   100



Course’s Contribution to Program


No Program Learning Outcomes Contribution
1 2 3 4 5  
9 Integrating basic medical sciences in clinical sciences and using this information in all procedures of the patient.         X  
15 Following international literature, evaluating publications critically and integration of research results and evidence based dentistry during practice.         X  



Activity  NUMBER  Duration
(Hours )
Total workload
(Hours )
Course duration  1st semester   ( theoretical)  8 10 84
Course duration  1st semester   ( practical ) 8 2.5 20
Studies outside the class  ( 1st semester )  8 14 112
TOTAL      216
Total workload /25     8.6
ECTS credits of the course      9